Archive for the ‘Stat of the Week’ Category

How Well Do Advanced Defensive Statistics Correlate?

Sunday, February 26th, 2012

by John Dewan

We’ve put a lot of effort into improving defensive metrics in recent years, but how much progress have we really made? In the introduction to The Fielding Bible—Volume III, I said:

“For hitters, we might be at the 85-90 percent mark of being able to measure offense. We have a lot of good tools like OPS (on-base plus slugging), Runs Created, Wins Above Replacement. For pitchers, we are not quite as far along. Maybe we’re at the 75 percent level of understanding pitcher effectiveness with our numerical tools like ERA, Batting Average on Balls in Play, and Opponent OPS. For defense, ten years ago we were probably around the 10th percentile. Now with three volumes of The Fielding Bible under our belts, plus the work of many other excellent sabermetricians, we are probably in the 60-70 percent range.”

In our book, The Fielding Bible—Volume III, we put our newest defensive analytics to the test. If our statistics are measuring something meaningful, we would expect them to correlate well from year to year. In other words, since Evan Longoria topped all third basemen with 20 Defensive Runs Saved in 2010, we would expect him to remain one of the league’s top defenders at the position in subsequent seasons. (Longoria saved an estimated 22 runs in the field in 2011, also a league-leading total.)

To measure the consistency of our Defensive Runs Saved numbers, we calculated what we’ll call Even/Odd Year Correlations. We added each fielder’s Runs Saved totals from 2006, 2008, and 2010 and compared to the subtotal from 2007, 2009, and 2011, with the requirement that the fielder have amassed at least 667 innings in both subsets. We would expect the players with higher totals in even years to also have high totals in odd years, while players with low totals in even years should also tend to have low totals in odd years.

By calculating the correlation coefficient of the even and odd year totals, we can measure just how consistent our statistics are. Correlation coefficients range from -1.0 to 1.0 and show relationships between two sets of numbers. A correlation coefficient of 1.0 represents a perfectly predictable relationship. For instance, if every fielder had the same number of Runs Saved in both even and odd seasons, that would produce a correlation of 1.0. On the other hand, a correlation coefficient of zero means that there is no measurable relationship, while a correlation coefficient of -1.0 signifies an inverse relationship between the sets of numbers.

Defensive Runs Saved produced an Even/Odd Year Correlation of .59. This high, positive correlation value indicates a strong relationship between even and odd season totals and a good consistency in measuring fielders’ value. But, how does this compare to traditional hitting and pitching statistics?

Even/Odd Year Correlation Coefficients for Commonly Cited Statistics



Batting Average




Defensive Runs Saved


As you can see, both batting average and ERA also produce high positive Even/Odd Year correlations, though Defensive Runs Saved correlates better than both. (We used a minimum of 150 innings or 500 at bats in both subtotals for pitching and hitting statistics, respectively, although the correlations didn’t change much when we adjusted the minimum cutoffs in either direction.)

Comparing our defensive analytics to batting average and ERA, which have been the staples of analytics in baseball for the first 100 years of its existence, we find that our Defensive Runs Saved system is a better way to measure defense than are batting average to measure offense and ERA to measure pitching.

Of course, we now have more advanced measures of hitting and pitching performance. Let’s see how well a few other statistics correlate between even and odd seasons.

Even/Odd Year Correlation Coefficients for Additional Statistics



Home Runs




Pitcher Strikeouts per 9 Innings


Pitcher Walks per 9 Innings


Opponent OPS


Home runs correlate at .83, indicating a very strong correlation between even and odd seasons. OPS correlates at .69, and Opponent OPS, which for me is the most important pitching statistic, correlates at .61.

We are at the point where our defensive analytics are nearly as reliable as offensive and pitching analytics. Just looking at the single best statistic in each: OPS is .69, Opponent OPS is .61, Defensive Runs Saved is .59. We’ve come a long way.

Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,

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Diamondbacks Sign Kubel – I Don’t Get It

Saturday, December 24th, 2011

by John Dewan

Maybe they have some other plans, but it sure seems to me the Arizona Diamondbacks just threw $15 million out the window.  Why sign a 30-year-old outfielder coming off a season cut short by injury to come in and take the place of a 25-year-old outfielder who just won a Gold Glove?

The D’Backs’ signing of Jason Kubel a couple of days ago to a reported two-year $15 million contract is a puzzler.  Yes, he hit 20+ homers three years in a row before last year, but that’s about all you can say that he has over the man he is rumored to be replacing, Gerardo Parra, as the everyday left fielder for Arizona.

Last year Kubel, a lefty, hit .273 with 12 homers and a .766 OPS in about 400 plate appearances.  Parra, also a lefty, hit .292 with 8 homers and a .784 OPS in just under 500 plate appearances.  Parra created 71 runs to 59 for Kubel.  Given the fewer plate appearances for Kubel, you can say offensively the two players were pretty even.  But it’s defense that made Parra a much better player than Kubel in 2011.  Parra saved an estimated 12 runs for Arizona last year. He won a Gold Glove in recognition for his superlative play in the field.  Kubel cost his team about 3 runs defensively.  That 15-run difference is huge.

Not to mention that Parra is five years younger (Kubel turns 30 and Parra turns 25 in May).

Let’s give Kubel the benefit of the doubt and think of 2011 as simply a down year.  The best way to assess these players going forward is to look at their projections for 2012.  The projections from The Bill James Handbook 2012 take into account the entire career of each player to this point to estimate what they’ll do in 2012.  Here’s what the projections show:



















The most interesting number is the projected Runs Created, the Bill James statistic that measures total offensive contribution.  Kubel has 77 projected runs created while Parra has 78.  Parra has a few more at-bats, but I think you can easily say that these two players are pretty close offensively.

But not defensively.  In the last three seasons Parra has saved 33 runs defensively while Kubel has cost his team a total of 3.  That’s 36 runs better for Parra, and it makes him a better overall player than Kubel.  Factoring offense and defense, you can estimate that with similar regular playing time, Parra will produce about 85-90 runs when you add in his defense compared to 75-80 runs for Kubel.

Not to mention that Parra is five years younger.  (Did I mention that yet?)

It’s possible that the Diamondbacks know something that we don’t know.  Maybe they have another deal in the works.  Maybe there’s something wrong with Parra.  Maybe they can project players better than we can.  But whatever it is, I don’t get it.

Happy Holidays!

“Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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Bunting for a Hit

Saturday, December 17th, 2011

by John Dewan

One of the projects we are working on here at Baseball Info Solutions for The Fielding Bible—Volume III is evaluating the effectiveness of defenders on bunt plays.  We currently have a method that does this, but we are developing a new method that takes into account the location of each bunt.  As every baseball fan knows, the key to an effective bunt is its location.  A bunt right back to the pitcher is pretty useless, whereas a bunt right on the third base line is excellent.  What we can do now is quantify how effective various bunt locations are.

We’ve broken the field into six zones.  We drew a line from home plate through the pitcher’s mound and through second base.  We have three zones to the left of that line and three zones to the right, broken up into equal sizes.  Think of them as pie slices with the center of the pie located at home plate. Zone 1 has all bunts that are along the first base line.  Zone 2 is in the middle of the area between the line we drew through the pitcher’s mound and the first base line, and Zone 3 is the area closest to the pitcher on the first base side.  Zones 4, 5 and 6 are to the left of the pitcher’s mound.  Zone 4 is closest to the pitcher. Zone 5 is between the pitcher and the third base line.  Zone 6 is along the third base line.

Here is a graphical depiction of the zones:

What are the batting averages on bunt attempts in each of these zones?

Before we do that, we have to take one more step.  We have to break this into two different situations, one where the defense is expecting the bunt (sacrifice situations) and one where the defense is not.  When a sacrifice situation was in effect last year (a bunt with men on base and less than two outs) there were 2,285 bunts put into play.  232 resulted in a hit for a .102 “batting average.”  On the other hand, there were 850 bunts put into play in a non-sacrifice situation last year, with 372 going for hits, making for a .438 batting average.

We’ve pointed this out before: bunting for a hit in non-sacrifice situations has been an effective strategy for many players since we started tracking this in the early 1990s.  The best bunters hit well over .500 when bunting for a hit.

As in real estate, bunting for a hit is all about location, location, location.  Here are the bunt batting averages in sacrifice situations by zone.

Bunt Batting Averages by Zone, 2011
Sacrifice Situations Only

Zone 1 .149
Zone 2 .094
Zone 3 .032
Zone 4 .026
Zone 5 .134
Zone 6 .291
Overall .102

As we would expect, a bunt down the third base line is best with a .291 batting average.  Bunting back towards the two zones closest to the pitcher get you .032 and .026 batting averages.

Here are the bunt batting averages in non-sacrifice situations by zone.

Batting Average by Zone, 2011
Non-Sacrifice Situations

Zone 1 .246
Zone 2 .412
Zone 3 .164
Zone 4 .139
Zone 5 .520
Zone 6 .720
Overall .438

Again, the third base line is most effective with a .720 batting average.  At a distant second is the middle zone between the pitcher and the third base line at .520.  The next best zone is interesting.  Pushing a bunt towards the second base position nets a .412 batting average.

In the chart above for sacrifice situations, we are counting all bunt attempts in the “batting average”. What if we consider a successful sacrifice as no at-bat, just like we do when we compute a normal batting average?  Here are the bunt batting averages by zone in this situation:

Batting Average by Zone, 2011
Sacrifice Situations, SH is not an AB

Zone 1 .591
Zone 2 .437
Zone 3 .140
Zone 4 .075
Zone 5 .482
Zone 6 .743
Overall .375

These numbers are now very similar to bunting for a hit in non-sacrifice situations, except along the first base line where the batting average becomes more than twice what it is in non-sacrifice situations.

“Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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Yu Darvish

Saturday, December 10th, 2011

by John Dewan

According to his agent, Don Nomura, Yu Darvish was posted yesterday (Thursday, December 8) for a move to MLB from Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), the top Japanese professional baseball league.  This is a process whereby major-league teams bid in a silent auction for the exclusive rights to negotiate with Darvish.  The auction is four days long.

Darvish is the latest superstar Japanese player to make the move across the Pacific, and MLB teams have been waiting for him to become available ever since he recorded the final out of the 2009 World Baseball Classic to clinch Japan’s second WBC title.  And now that the big names like Mark Buehrle and C.J. Wilson are off the board, Darvish becomes one of the best remaining free-agent starting pitchers available.

Each year in The Bill James Handbook we include the career stats of players that are most likely to leave the Japanese leagues to come over and play in the United States.  This year, Darvish is obviously the most high-profile such player.

Here are Darvish’s career numbers from Japan, playing for the Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters.































































If you are curious how that compares to the last highly-touted young pitcher that helped Japan win a World Baseball Classic title (MVP of the 2006 tournament) before deciding to join MLB the following year, here are Daisuke Matsuzaka’s career numbers playing for the Seibu Lions.






































































It will be interesting to see what kind of posting fee and contract Darvish gets.  Dice-K pitched a bit more at a young age, but Darvish has been more consistently dominant than Dice-K was.  Darvish has had an ERA under 2.00 for five years running, and threw more than 200 innings in four of those five years.  Will that lead to a similar $100 million outlay, like Dice-K got ($51 million posting fee plus $52 million 6-year contract), or will teams spend more cautiously after seeing the up-and-down performance of Dice-K since he entered MLB?

You can find more statistics on Japanese players that are likely to sign MLB contracts this year in The Bill James Handbook 2012.

“Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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Is the Ted Williams Shift Effective?

Saturday, December 3rd, 2011

by John Dewan

The short answer: Absolutely.

But only if the bases are empty.

For the past two years Baseball Info Solutions has been tracking every play during which the defensive team employs a “Ted Williams” type shift where three infielders are playing to the right of second base. Based on our preliminary study of this data, The Shift works when the bases are empty.

There are five players who faced the shift more than 200 times in 2010 and 2011.  They are David Ortiz, Ryan Howard, Carlos Pena, Adam Dunn and Prince Fielder.   When looking at groundballs and short liners that they hit (balls that can be handled by infielders), every one of them did worse when facing The Shift with no one on base.  Here are the results:

Batting Average, 2010-2011
Groundballs and Short Liners Only, Bases Empty
  Shift On No Shift
David Ortiz .208 .259
Ryan Howard .174 .273
Carlos Pena .183 .213
Adam Dunn .207 .263
Prince Fielder .208 .248

On average, that’s 55 points of batting average lost to The Shift.

Based on a smaller sample size (because managers employ The Shift less often with men on base), the data is only showing a 3-point batting average drop when using The Shift with runners on.

These are our preliminary findings.  We will study this in greater detail in The Fielding Bible—Volume III coming out in the spring.

“Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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Stats To Be Thankful For

Saturday, November 26th, 2011

by John Dewan

I’d like to wish all my readers a very Happy Thanksgiving!

In keeping with the theme of thankfulness, here are some numbers in the baseball world to which this sentiment applies.

21 – That is the number of consecutive years of labor peace that baseball is guaranteed with MLB and the MLBPA having agreed on a new five-year collective bargaining agreement.  As contentious as baseball’s labor history has been, the general state of harmony that has existed since the last players’ strike ended in early 1995 represents the longest such stretch since the MLBPA was formed in 1953.  In that time the NHL has lost a full season, the NBA lost part of the 1998-1999 season and has already canceled games for this season, and the NFL went through an extended lockout this year before coming to an agreement just before the season started.  Life is good for baseball fans right now.

2,728 – That is the number of career wins for future Hall of Fame manager Tony LaRussa.  Tony goes out on top, having led the St. Louis Cardinals to an astonishing World Series victory after prevailing in an equally thrilling National League Wild Card race on the last day of the regular season.  That gives him three World Series titles to go along with six pennants.

160,000,000 – That is the total dollar value of Matt Kemp’s new contract extension to stay with the Los Angeles Dodgers.  It is great to see that one of the league’s premier franchises is beginning to move past the prolonged financial troubles and legal battles that have been hanging over the club.  Kemp and 2011 Cy Young Award winner Clayton Kershaw are two of the bright young stars of the game, and this signing shows that the Dodgers may yet have a bright future ahead of them.

24 – That is the number of different teams, out of 30 total MLB franchises, that have reached the playoffs in the last 10 years dating back to 2002.  Furthermore, there have been eight different World Series champions in those 10 years.  While there may be some degree of luck involved in getting through the playoffs and winning the World Series, it is an impressive accomplishment to sustain success over the 162-game regular season to make the playoffs.  That level of parity is a reason that every fan should feel hopeful that their team could very easily become the next great contender.  Even Cubs fans have reason to hope!

Infinity – That’s the number of thank yous I’d like to give my staff for all their help in bringing you Stat of the Week.  My name is on this feature, but they do more than their share of the heavy lifting.  Thank you to Rob Burckhard, Charles Fiore, Ben Jedlovec, Amanda Modelski and Joe Rosales.  You guys do great work!

Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,

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Has the 300-Game Winner Become Extinct?

Saturday, November 19th, 2011

It seems like every time a pitcher reaches the magical mark of 300 wins, many fans and baseball people wonder aloud: “Is this the last time we’ll see someone reach 300 wins?”  That was a popular sentiment after Greg Maddux reached the mark in 2004, then Tom Glavine (2007), and most recently Randy Johnson (2009).

At the end of the 2011 season the closest active pitcher to 300 wins was Tim Wakefield, Boston’s 45-year old knuckleballer.  Wakefield notched career win number 200 on September 13.  Of course, the seemingly immortal Jamie Moyer has 267 career wins and is attempting to come back from Tommy John surgery, but Moyer turns 49 in four days (November 18).  It seems unlikely that either of these two veterans will reach 300 wins. Is the 300-game winner an extinct breed?

Not at all.

Each year, in the Bill James Handbook¸ Bill lists the players he thinks are the most likely to reach 300 wins based on a formula he devised to measure a pitcher’s chances for this sacred milestone. The key to the formula is the pitcher’s momentum (wins in recent seasons) matched up with his win total thus far in his career.

Here are the top-five 300 win candidates heading into 2012:


2011 Age


Chance at
300 Wins

Roy Halladay




CC Sabathia




Justin Verlander




Cliff Lee




Dan Haren




Roy Halladay and CC Sabathia each have around a 50-50 shot at winning 300 games.  Justin Verlander only had a 10% chance at 300 wins entering the 2011 season, but after a 24-win season, his chances skyrocket to 31%.  The chance that one of these five gets 300 wins in his career is about 90%.

For the complete list of 300 win candidates, check out the Bill James Handbook 2012, in stores and available at now.

Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,

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The 2011 Fielding Bible Awards

Saturday, November 5th, 2011

THE 2011 FIELDING BIBLE AWARDS have been officially announced.  Albert Pujols reclaims the Award at first base that had been his every year since the Fielding Bible Awards began in 2006 until Daric Barton snatched it away last year.

Joining Pujols as repeat winners are Mark Buehrle (his third consecutive), Troy Tulowitzki (his third, and second in a row), Adrian Beltre (his third also), and Brett Gardner (second in a row). First time winners are Dustin Pedroia, Austin Jackson, Justin Upton, and Matt Wieters.

A panel of ten analysts, listed below—including John Dewan, Peter Gammons, and Bill James—examined the 2011 seasons of every defensive player in Major League Baseball and then used the same voting technique as the Major League Baseball MVP voting. First place votes received 10 points, second place 9 points, third place 8 points, etc. A perfect score was 100. A complete record of their votes can be found in The Bill James Handbook 2012.

One important distinction that differentiates THE FIELDING BIBLE AWARDS from most other baseball awards, such as the Gold Gloves, is that there is only one winner at each position instead of separate winners for each league.  The goal of THE FIELDING BIBLE AWARDS is to stand up and say: “Here is the best fielder at this position in Major League Baseball last season.” Another key feature of the system is that it also recognizes the runners-up for each position, instead of just focusing on the winners.

Here are the results of THE 2011 FIELDING BIBLE AWARDS:

Winning his fifth Fielding Bible Award wasn’t easy for Pujols, as he only edged out Adrian Gonzalez by 4 points, 82 to 78, in the closest race of any of the awards.

Despite already having a Gold Glove to his name and doing well in the voting in previous years, a Fielding Bible Award had eluded Pedroia until now.  He was selected overwhelmingly this year, coming in 21 points better than runner-up Ben Zobrist.

Beltre won this year’s Fielding Bible Award pretty convincingly with 98 points out of a possible 100.  However, last year’s winner, Evan Longoria, didn’t go down without a fight, garnering 90 points himself.  No second place finisher at any other position had more than 78.

Tulowitzki signed a huge contract extension last offseason.  Clearly the Rockies wanted to make Tulo the rock of their defense for years to come, as this is the third time he has been honored with a Fielding Bible Award as the best defender at one of the most critical positions on the field.

Gardner has established himself as one of the elite outfielders in the game.  He saved an estimated 22 runs for his team this year, a total usually only seen amongst center fielders.  As a result, he was only one point shy of being a unanimous selection for The Fielding Bible Award in left field.

Jackson has rewarded the Tigers for clearing space to make him their starting center fielder.  His 22 Defensive Runs Saved led all center fielders, the second year in a row he has done that.

With a down year from three-time Fielding Bible Award winner Ichiro Suzuki, the door was opened for a new honoree.  Seven different players received first place votes, but Upton emerged from the pack as this year’s winner, excelling on deeply hit balls where he fielded 18 more balls in 2011 than the average right fielder would have.

This year Wieters unseated the winner of the last four Fielding Bible Award winners at catcher, Yadier Molina.  Wieters led all catchers with 14 Runs Saved, and garnered 97 points as the overwhelming choice for this year’s award.

Buehrle again won this award handily. Runner up R.A. Dickey only had 61 points. This is Buehrle’s third straight Fielding Bible Award, as he continues to field his position very well and is a master of controlling the running game. Only three of ten would-be base-stealers were successful against him, and he picked off two additional baserunners.

The Panel

1. Bill James is a baseball writer and analyst and the Senior Baseball Operations Advisor for the Boston Red Sox;

2. The BIS Video Scouts at Baseball Info Solutions (BIS) study every game of the season, multiple times, charting a huge list of valuable game details;
3. The man who created Strat-O-Matic Baseball—Hal Richman;

4. Named the best sports columnist in America by the AP Sports Editors, Joe Posnanski is a Senior Writer at Sports Illustrated and occasional columnist for the Kansas City Star;
5. For over twenty years, BIS owner John Dewan has collected, published and analyzed in-depth baseball statistics and is the author of The Fielding Bible and The Fielding Bible—Volume II;

6. Doug Glanville played nine seasons in Major League Baseball and was well known for his excellent outfield defense.  Currently, he is a baseball analyst at ESPN, primarily on Baseball Tonight, and ESPN The Magazine.;

7. Hall-of-Famer Peter Gammons serves as on-air and online analyst for MLB Network,, and NESN (New England Sports Network);

8. After nearly fifteen years with, Rob Neyer joined SB Nation as National Baseball Editor in 2011.  He has written six books about baseball. ;

9. Todd Radcliffe is Lead Video Scout at Baseball Info Solutions;

10. The Tom Tango Fan Poll represents the results of a poll taken at the website, Tango on Baseball (  Besides hosting the website, Tom writes research articles devoted to sabermetrics.;

The three tie-breakers are Steve Moyer, President of BIS, Dan Casey, veteran Video Scout at BIS, and Dave Studenmund, one of the owners of and the editor of The Hardball Times Baseball Annual.

Complete results and voting on THE 2011 FIELDING BIBLE AWARDS are presented in The Bill James Handbook 2012, published on or before November 1 every year. For more information on The Fielding Bible Awards, visit

“Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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Stat of the Week: A New Pitching Stat

Saturday, June 18th, 2011

Last week, we evaluated the definition of a Quality Start and concluded that, while still useful, it is seriously flawed.  This week, we’re going to introduce an alternative: Gem.

In the baseball vernacular, broadcasters and writers use the term “Gem” regularly to describe a pitching masterpiece: “Felix Hernandez pitched a gem last night in the Mariners’ 2-1 victory over the Tigers.”  Bill James took that term and gave it a definition.  The end result is an improvement on Quality Start and a way to highlight the best pitching performances.

A Gem is a game in which the starting pitcher earns a Game Score of at least 65 or throws six or more innings of shutout baseball.  For the mathematically inclined, we’ll go over the definition of Game Score at the end of the Stat of the Week, but first let’s show some examples of what a 65 looks like.  Shaun Marcum earned a Game Score of exactly 65 in his start last Tuesday against the Mets.  He went 6.0 innings, struck out one and allowed two hits, no earned runs, and four walks.  Kyle Kendrick’s start against the Braves on May 7 also earned a Game Score of exactly 65.  He threw 5.0 innings, struck out three and allowed two hits, no earned runs and one walk.  Both of those games qualify as gems, albeit at the lowest end of the Game Score spectrum.

On the higher end of the spectrum is Justin Verlander’s no-hitter earlier this year.  On May 7 against the Blue Jays, he went the distance with no hits, no runs, a walk and four strikeouts.  His performance earned a game score of 90, but that was not the top pitching performance of 2011.  Here are the top Gems of the season:

Top Five Gems of the 2011 Season
Pitcher Date Opponent IP H ER BB

SO Game Score
James Shields 5/22 Marlins 9.0 3 0 1 13 93
Clayton Kershaw 5/29 Marlins 9.0 2 0 1 10 92
Cliff Lee 4/14 Nationals 9.0 3 0 1 12 92
Dan Haren 4/12 Indians 9.0 1 0 2 8 91
Ian Kennedy 4/25 Phillies 9.0 3 0 0 10 91

In a Major League season there are 2,420 games.  Over the last ten years there have been an average of over 2,300 Quality Starts per year.  That’s almost one per game. There are about 1,000 Gems per year.  Just under 50 percent of MLB games are a Gem.

Gems and Quality Starts – Last 10 Years
Through June 12, 2011
Quality Starts 22,438
Team Winning Percentage in a Quality Start .679
Gems 9,213
Team Winning Percentage in a Gem .815

Teams win two-thirds of the time when the pitcher has a Quality Start, but while there are fewer Gems, the winning percentage is much higher at .815.  As we saw last week, when a pitcher throws a Quality Start of eight innings or fewer with exactly three earned runs, the team winning percentage is only .500.  While there aren’t that many Gems with three earned runs, the winning percentage in the 164 games over the last ten years is .689.

The 2011 leaders in Quality Starts and Gems are:

Quality Start Leaders   Gem Leaders
Pitcher, Team Quality Starts   Pitcher, Team Gems
Justin Verlander, Tigers 13   Justin Verlander, Tigers 9
Jered Weaver, Angels 12   Shaun Marcum, Brewers 8
Roy Halladay, Phillies 12   Roy Halladay, Phillies 8
Cole Hamels, Phillies 11   Randy Wolf, Brewers 7
Dan Haren, Angels 11   Jered Weaver, Angels 7
Jair Jurrjens, Braves 11   Felix Hernandez, Mariners 7
James Shields, Rays 11   Cole Hamels, Phillies 7

For more on Gems, visit

Below is the formula for Game Score, the foundation for Gems, and here is the link for the Wikipedia article on Game Score.

Start with 50.
Add 1 point for each out recorded by the starting pitcher.
Add 2 points for each inning the pitcher completes after the fourth inning.
Add 1 point for each strikeout.
Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed.
Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed.
Subtract 2 points for an unearned run.
Subtract 1 point for each walk.

The 12-point penalty for allowing three earned runs reduces the chance that a pitcher can reach a game score of 65, the benchmark for a gem.  As I said last week, only allowing three earned runs keeps the team in the game, but it is far from the quality suggested by the term Quality Stat.  Gems are a much better way of recognizing superb pitching performances.

Used with permission from John Dewan’s Stat of the Week®,”

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